※ Chromatin introduction

    Chromatin is partitioned on multiple length scales into subcompartments that differ from each other with respect to their molecular composition and biological function. two different mechanisms for the formation of phase-separated chromatin subcompartments have been proposed. One is based on bridging proteins that cross-link polymer segments with particular properties. Bridging can induce a collapse of the nucleosome chain and associated factors into an ordered globular phase. The other mechanism is based on multivalent interactions among soluble molecules that bind to chromatin. These interactions can induce liquid-liquid phase separation, which drives the assembly of liquid-like nuclear bodies around the respective binding sites on chromatin. Both phase separation mechanisms can explain that chromatin bodies are dynamic spherical structures, which can coalesce and are in constant and rapid exchange with the surrounding nucleoplasm.

1. Erdel, F., Rippe, K. (2018) Formation of Chromatin Subcompartments by Phase Separation. Biophys J, 114(10):2262-2270. PMID: 29628210

Chromatin  in eukaryotes (Total number, Predicted number):

  Absidia glauca (1, 1)   Arabidopsis lyrata (1, 1)   Beauveria bassiana (1, 1)
  Brassica napus (1, 1)   Brassica oleracea (1, 1)   Brassica rapa (1, 1)
  Cucumis sativus (1, 1)   Daucus carota (1, 1)   Drosophila melanogaster (1, 0)
  Leersia perrieri (1, 1)   Musa acuminata (1, 1)   Nicotiana attenuata (1, 1)
  Oryza brachyantha (1, 1)   Populus trichocarpa (1, 1)   Setaria italica (1, 1)
  Solanum lycopersicum (1, 1)   Solanum tuberosum (1, 1)   Triticum aestivum (1, 1)
  Verticillium dahliae (1, 1)   Vitis vinifera (1, 1)   Zea mays (1, 1)